Western Europe has a tradition of non-religious ethical thinking that can be traced back some 2,500 years to the philosophy of the Ancient Greeks. This way of understanding the world, of finding meaning in life, and of grounding moral thinking can also be found in China and India and many other cultures. You can trace the movement of humanist ideas through time in the following sections. You can also find out more about a selection of historical figures who have influenced humanist thinking or demonstrated humanist ideals in their lives or writings.
Many people have thought and expressed humanist ideas over many centuries all over the world, contributing to a humanist tradition. Though some of them may have believed in a god or gods, they were thoughtful, humane, open-minded people, and many of them fought against the ignorance and religious bigotry of their day, sometimes taking considerable personal risks to do so. Many of the great philosophers, scientists and moral thinkers were essentially humanist, because they did not accept traditional beliefs but thought for themselves and pushed human knowledge forwards.
A time of political and religious turmoil and the development of modern social science. Key figures include Jeremy Bentham, Charles Bradlaugh, the Curies, Charles Darwin, George Eliot, Thomas Hardy, George Holyoake, T H Huxley, Robert G Ingersoll, John Stuart Mill, and Percy Bysshe Shelley.
Modern humanist thinkers and writers had an enormous impact on the last century. Key figures include A J Ayer, Harold Blackham, Fenner Brockway, Joseph Conrad, E M Forster, Sigmund Freud, Thomas Hardy, Julian Huxley, Margaret Knight, G E Moore, Nehru, M N Roy, Gene Roddenberry, Bertrand Russell, John Maynard Smith, and ‘Gora’.
Many of the founders of the mid-20th century international co-operative institutions – Brock Chisholm, Peter Ritchie Calder and John Boyd Orr were humanists. You can read more about them and other philanthropists and social activists from the humanist tradition in Humanists working for a better world.